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Skaters perform spins, jumps, and other moves on ice.
Figure skating is a sporting event in which individuals, mixed couples, or groups perform spins, jumps, and other moves on ice, often to music. There are international competitions for figure skating, such as the World Championships; and figure skating is also an official event in the Winter Olympics. In languages other than English, figure skating is usually referred to by a name that translates as "artistic skating".
The sport is closely associated with show business, and includes "spectaculars" in which performers skate unjudged, and the crowd pleasing routines are at the end of competition held at many tournaments. Many skaters, both during and after their competitive careers, also skate in ice-skating exhibitions or shows. Many shows are run by individual clubs to show off their members' accomplishments.
Figure skates differ from hockey skates most visibly in having a set of large, jagged teeth called "toe picks" (also known as "toe rakes") on the front of the blade. The toe picks are used primarily in jumping and should not be used for stroking or spins. Toe pick designs have become quite elaborate and sometimes include teeth on the sides of the blade.
The figure skating blade is curved from front to back with a radius of about 2 meters. Recently, parabolic figure skating blades have been designed to increase skaters' stability. The figure skate's blade is about 3/16 inch (4 mm) thick. The blade is also "hollow ground"; a groove on the bottom of the blade creates two distinct edges, inside and outside. In figure skating it is always desirable to skate on only one edge of the blade, never on both at the same time (which is referred to as a "flat"). The apparently effortless power and glide across the ice exhibited by elite figure skaters fundamentally derives from efficient use of the edges to generate speed.
Figure skating boots are traditionally made by hand from many layers of leather. In recent years, boots made of synthetic materials with heat-moldable linings have become popular with many skaters because they combine strength with lighter weight than leather boots, and are easier to "break in". The latest development in boot technology is a boot that is hinged at the ankle to provide lateral support while allowing more flexibility. Blades are mounted to the sole and heel of the boot with screws.
Typically, high-level figure skaters will be professionally fitted for their boots at a reputable skate shop in their area.
Other equipment used by skaters includes pads called butt pads or crash pads that are inserted into the pants or stockings and provide relief from the pain of hard falls, especially when learning new jumps. Another piece of equipment is the guard, which is put on the blade when the skater must walk in his or her skates when not on the ice. The guard protects the blade from dirt or material on the ground that may dull the blade. Soft blade covers called soakers are used to absorb condensation and protect the blades from rust when the skates are not being worn.
Clothing worn while ice skating includes dresses and skirts for women. For competition, these pieces of clothing can be heavily beaded or trimmed, and cost up to thousands of dollars if designed by a top level dress-maker. For practice, figure skaters of both sexes usually wear leggings or tight fitting, flexible pants. Tights are also worn with dresses and skirts and underneath leggings for extra warmth and aesthetic qualities. Women generally wear flesh-colored leggings under dresses and skirts; the costumes are thus less revealing than they at first appear. Competition outfits for skaters of both sexes, especially in ice dance, are often theatrical and revealing, in spite of repeated attempts to ban clothing that gives the impression of "excessive skin" or that is otherwise inappropriate for athletic competition.
Some rinks use harness systems to help skaters learn jumps faster in a controlled manner. The rink installs a heavy-duty cable that is securely attached to two walls of the rink. A set of pulleys ride on the cable. The skater wears a vest or belt that has a cable or rope attached to it. That cable/rope is threaded through the movable pulley on the cable above. The coach holds the other end of the cable and lifts the skater by pulling the cable/rope. The skater can then practice the jump, with the coach assisting with the completion.
International competitions in figure skating comprise the following disciplines:
* Singles competition for men and women (who are referred to as "ladies" in the official terminology of the sport). Singles skaters must perform jumps, spins, and step sequences in their programs.
*Pairs skating for teams consisting of a lady and a man. Pairs perform singles elements in unison as well as pair-specific elements such as throw jumps, in which the male skater 'throws' the female into a jump; lifts, in which the female is held above the male's head in a number of different grips and positions; pair spins, in which both skaters spin together about a common axis; and death spirals, where the man in a pivot swings the lady around him on a deep edge in a position low to the ice.
*Ice dancing, again for couples consisting of a lady and a man skating together. Ice dance differs from pairs in focusing on difficult steps performed in close dance holds exactly to the beat of the music rather than acrobatic jumps, throws, and lifts. In addition to free dances to music of their own choice, ice dancers must perform compulsory dances with fixed steps and patterns to standard ballroom dance rhythms. In spite of the lack of obvious "tricks", ice dance is considered by many to be the most technical and detailed of the skating disciplines.
*Synchronized skating, for mixed-gender groups of 12 to 20 skaters. This discipline resembles a group form of ice dance with additional emphasis on precise formations of the group as a whole and complex transitions between formations.
Other disciplines of skating include:
*Compulsory figures, in which skaters use their blades to draw circles, figure 8s, and similar shapes in ice, and are judged on the accuracy and clarity of the figures and the cleanness and exact placement of the various turns on the circles. Figures were formerly included as a component of singles competitions but were eliminated from those events in 1990. Today, figures are rarely taught or performed. The United States was the last country to retain a separate test and competitive structure for compulsory figures, but the last national-level figures championship was held in 1999.
*Moves in the field (known in the UK as field moves), which have replaced compulsory figures as a discipline to teach the same turns and edge skills in the context of fluid free skating movements instead of being constrained to artificially precise circles.
*Fours, a discipline that is to pairs as pairs is to singles. A fours' team consists of two men and two women who perform singles and pairs elements in unison as well as unique elements that involve all four skaters.
*Theatre on ice, also known as ballet on ice in Europe. This is a form of group skating that is less structured than synchronized skating and allows the use of props and theatrical costuming.
*Adagio skating, a form of pair skating most commonly seen in ice shows, where the skaters perform many spectacular acrobatic lifts, but few or none of the singles' elements which competitive pairs must perform.
*Special figures, the tracing of elaborate original designs on the ice, common in the early days of skating.
Jumps involve the skater leaping into the air and rotating rapidly to land after completing one or more rotations. There are many types of jumps, identified by the way the skater takes off and lands, as well as by the number of rotations that are completed.
Most skaters rotate all their jumps in the counterclockwise direction. Some prefer to rotate clockwise, and a very small number of skaters can perform jumps in both directions. For clarity, all jumps will be described for the counterclockwise skater.
There are six major jumps in figure skating. All six are landed on a right back outside edge (with counterclockwise rotation, for single and multi-revolution jumps), but have different takeoffs, by which they may be distinguished. The two categories of jumps are toe jumps and edge jumps. (Descriptions below are for counterclockwise rotation skaters; reverse for clockwise rotation jumps.)
Toe jumps are launched by tapping the toe pick of one skate into the ice, and include (in order of difficulty from easiest to hardest):
# Toe loops take off from the back outside edge of the right foot and are launched by the left toe pick (toe walleys are similar, but take off from the back inside edge of the right foot);
# Toe walley, some people mistakenly refer to a toe loop done from the outside three turn entrance with a change of foot as a toe walley; a true toe walley takes off from a back inside edge, not an outside edge;
# Flips, which take off from the back inside edge of the left foot and are launched by the right toe pick;
# Lutzes, which take off from the back outside edge of the left foot and are launched by the right toe pick.
Edge jumps use no toe assist, and include:
# Salchows, which take off from a left back inside edge. Swinging the opposite leg around helps launch the jump;
# Loops (also known as Rittberger jumps) take off from a right back outside edge and land on the same edge;
# Axels, which are the only jump to take off from a forward edge (the left outside edge). Because they take off from a forward edge, they include one-half extra rotations and are usually considered the hardest jump of the six. The similar jump with only half a rotation is called a waltz jump and is typically the first jump a skater learns.
The number of rotations performed in the air for each jump determines whether the jump is a single, double, triple, or quad. Most elite male skaters perform triples and quads as their main jumps, while most elite female skaters perform all the triples except the axel, which is usually double. Only a handful of female skaters have successfully landed triple axels in competition.
One variation, known as the "Tano", is far more difficult than a normal jump because the jumper keeps one arm raised above his or her head while jumping. The name is derived from Brian Boitano, who made a triple lutz with an upraised arm his signature jump.
There are also a number of other jumps which are usually performed only as single jumps and are typically used as transitional movements or highlights in step sequences. These include:
#Half Loops, which take off from a right back outside edge like a loop, but land on the left back inside edge;
#Half Flip, a half-rotation jump with a flip entrance, typically landed on the left toe pick and right forward inside edge for a counterclockwise jump.
#Walley jumps, which takes off from a right back inside edge. It is debatably more difficult than the axel, because the flow of the inside edge is clockwise and opposes the counterclockwise rotation in the air;
#Split jumps, which are half-rotation jumps based on a flip, lutz, or loop entrance;
# Waltz jump The similar Axel jump with only half a rotation is called a is typically the first jump a skater learns
#Inside axels, one-and-a-half-rotation jumps that take off from the right forward inside edge;
#One-foot axels, one-and-a-half-rotation jumps with a regular axel takeoff from the left forward outside edge, but landing on the left back inside edge.
In addition to jumps performed singly, jumps may also be performed in combination or in sequence.
For a set of jumps to be considered a combination, each jump must take off from the landing edge of the previous jump, with no steps, turns, or change of edge in between jumps. This limits all jumps except the first to toe loops and loops (which take off from the right back outside edge on which the basic six jumps are landed). In order to use other jumps on the back end of a combination, connecting jumps such as a half loop (which is actually a full rotation, but lands on a left back inside edge) can be used, enabling the skater to put a salchow or flip at the end of the combination.
Jump sequences are sets of jumps which may involve steps or changes of edge between the jumps.
There are also several types of spins, identified by the position of the arms, legs, and angle of the back. Spins are done on the round part of the blade, just behind the toe pick. The round part of the blade is called the ball of the foot. (Contrary to popular thought, spins are NOT done on the toe picks -- they're mainly for jumps.)
Spins may be performed on either foot. For skaters who rotate in a counterclockwise direction, a spin on the left foot is called a "forward" spin, while a spin on the right foot is called a "back" spin.
*Upright spin (or corkscrew spin), in which a skater maintains a vertical position, often with the free leg crossed in front of the skating leg. A fast spin in this position is known as a scratch spin.
*Camel spin (also known as a parallel spin), in which the skater assumes an "airplane" position (or spiral position) with the free leg extended behind at hip level, parallel to the ice surface.
*Sit spin, in which the knee of the skating leg bent very low, and the free leg stretched out in front, parallel to the ice.
*Crossfoot spins, an upright spin in which the free leg is crossed behind the skating foot.
*Layback spins, in which the skater bends backward gracefully and positions arms artistically.
*Biellmann spins, where the skater pulls free leg from behind her (or very rarely him), over the head. She (or he) usually holds onto the blade of the skate. (Obviously, this requires extreme flexibility.) Named after Denise Biellmann, 1981 ladies' world champion from Switzerland.
*Doughnut spins, a variation of a back camel spin where the skater pulls the blade of the skate of the free leg backward with one or both arms while arching the back to create a horizontal circular shape with the body.
*Death drop spins
*Other spins where the skater extends the free leg in front or to the side in a split or near-split position.
"Flying" spins are spins that are initiated with a jump. These include the flying camel, flying sit spin, death drop, and butterfly spin. Usually, they go from a forward spin, to a back spin.
Steps and turns
Step sequences are a required element in competition programs. They involve a combination of turns, steps, hops and edge changes, performed in a straight line down the ice, in a circle, or in an S shape (serpentine step sequence).
The various turns which skaters can incorporate into step sequences include:
*Three turns, so called because the blade turns into the curve of the edge or lobe to leave a tracing resembling the numeral "3".
*Bracket turns, in which the blade is turned counter to the curve of the lobe, making a tracing resembling a bracket ("}").
*Rockers and counters, one-foot turns that involve a change of lobe as well as of direction.
*Mohawks, the two-foot equivalents of three turns and brackets.
*Choctaws, the two-foot equivalents of rockers and counters.
*Twizzles, travelling multi-rotation turns on one foot
Spiral sequences are also required (in women's skating only), and involve lifting the free leg above the hip to a position equivalent of the arabesque in ballet, or the scale in gymnastics. Spirals can be performed while skating forwards or backwards, and are distinguished by the edge of the blade used and the foot they are skated on.
Other freeskating movements which can be incorporated into step sequences or used as connecting elements include lunges and spread eagles. An Ina Bauer is similar to a spread eagle performed with one knee bent and typically an arched back. Hydroblading refers to a deep edge performed with the body as low as possible to the ice in a near-horizontal position.
Competition format and scoring
The International Skating Union (ISU) is the governing body for international competitions. The ISU oversees the World Championships and the figure skating events at the Winter Olympic Games.
In singles and pairs figure skating competition, competitors must perform two routines, the "short program", in which the skater must complete a list of required elements consisting of jumps, spins and steps; and the "free skate" or "long program", in which the skaters have slightly more choice of elements. Ice dancing competitions usually consist of three phases: one or more "compulsory dances"; an "original dance" to a ballroom rhythm that is designated annually; and a "free dance" to music of the skaters' own choice.
Skating was formerly judged for "technical merit" (in the free skate), "required elements" (in the short program), and "presentation" (in both programs). The marks for each program ran from 0.0 to 6.0 and were used to determine a preference ranking, or "ordinal", separately for each judge; the judges' preferences were then combined to determine placements for each skater in each program. The placements for the two programs were then combined, with the free skate placement weighted more heavily than the short program. The lowest scoring individual (based on the sum of the weighted placements) was declared the winner.
In 2004, after the judging controversy during the 2002 Winter Olympics, the ISU adopted a new judging system called the New Judging System (NJS) or Code of Points which became mandatory at all international competitions in 2006, including the 2006 Winter Olympics.
Under the new system, technical marks are awarded individually for each skating element. Competitive programs are constrained to have a set number of elements. Each element is judged first by a technical specialist who identifies the specific element. The technical specialist uses instant replay video to verify things that distinguish different elements; e.g. the exact foot position at take-off and landing of a jump. The decision of the technical specialist determines the base value of the element. A panel of twelve judges then award a mark for grade of execution (GOE) that is an integer from -3 to +3. The GOE mark is then translated into a value by using the table of values in ISU rule 322. The GOE value from the twelve judges is then averaged by randomly selecting nine judges, discarding the high and low value, and averaging the remaining seven. This average value is then added (or subtracted) from the base value to get the value for the element.
The number and type of elements in a skating program depends on the event and on the level of competition. At the senior international level, single and pairs short programs contain eight technical elements. The actual eight elements are detailed for single skaters in ISU rule 310. Each skater must attempt one combination jump, two solo jumps, three spins, and two skating sequences. The eight elements required for a senior pairs short program include two lifts, two jumps, two spins, one step sequence, and one death spiral (ISU rule 313).
Free programs have 14 elements for pairs and men, and 13 elements for ladies. The details of the elements are given by ISU rules 320 and 321. Pairs do 4 lifts, 4 jumps, and 6 spins, steps, or spirals. Men do 8 jumps, and 6 spins or step sequences. Ladies do 7 jumps and 6 spins, steps or spirals.
Jumps done in combination are marked as a single element, with a base mark equal to the sum of the base marks for the individual jumps. However, a combination can be downgraded to a "sequence", in which case the base value is 0.8 times the sum of the individual jumps. The jumps normally executed at the senior level, and their base values, are quad toe loop (9), triple Axel (7.5), triple Lutz (6), triple flip (5.5), triple loop (5), triple Salchow (4.5), triple toe loop (4) and double Axel (3.3).
The former presentation mark has been replaced by five categories, called program components. The components are (1) skating skills, (2) transitions, (3) performance, (4) choreography, and (5) interpretation. A detailed description of each component is given in ISU rule 322.2. Each component is awarded a raw mark from 0 to 10, with a mark of 5 being defined as "average". The five raw marks are then translated into a program mark by multiplying by a factor that depends on the program and the level.
For senior ladies, the factor is 0.8 for the short program and 1.6 for the long program. The factors are set so that the total score from the artistic marks will be about equal to the total score from technical marks.
Judging in figure skating is inherently subjective. Although there may be general consensus that one skater "looks better" than another, it is difficult to get agreement on what it is that causes one skater to be marked as 5.5 and another to be 5.75 for a particular program component. As judges, coaches, and skaters get more experience with the new system, there may emerge more consensus. However, for the 2006 Olympics there were cases of 1 to 1.5 points differences in component marks from different judges. This range of difference implies that "observer bias" determines about 20% of the mark given by a judge. Averaging over many judges reduces the effect of this bias in the final score, but there will remain about a 2% spread in the average artistic marks from the randomly selected subsets of judges.
Ice dancing judging is similar to pairs and singles, but uses a separate set of rules and table of values. In the compulsory dance, steps are specified and "elements" are defined for each dance as subsets of the prescribed steps. For compulsory dance only, there is no artistic mark given for choreography. Instead the marks for skating skills and transitions are multiplied by 1.5. In original dance there are 5 marked technical elements. In the free dance, there are 9 marked technical elements.
The new judging system moves ice skating closer to judging systems used in sports like diving and gymnastics. It also has some features intended to make judging more resistent to pressure by special interests. However, there are many who question whether the new system is actually any better than the old. Under the ISU rules, the judges' marks are anonymous, which removes any public accountability of the judges for their marks. The random panel selection procedure can change a skater's mark by several points and alter the outcome of competitions depending on which subset of judges are chosen. The US Figure Skating association has split with the ISU on these these two issues. In the US, the judges names remain associated with the marks. Also the US uses only nine judges and counts all nine. Another issue that has appeared in the press is that the sport is still ruled by the same people, and still subject to bias and pressure from invisible insiders. Another problem is that the new system excessively constrains the content of skaters' programs and reduces creativity. Still, another complaint is that the technical specialist has too much power to control skaters' scores.
There are also skating competitions organized for professional skaters by independent promoters. These competitions use judging rules set by whoever organizes the competition. There is no "professional league".
The Ice Skating Institute (ISI), an international ice rink trade organization, runs its own competitive and test program aimed at recreational skaters. Originally headquartered in Minnesota, the organization now operates out of Dallas, Texas. ISI competitions are open to any member that have registered their tests. There are very few "qualifying" competitions, although some districts hold "Gold Competitions" for that season's first-place winners. ISI competitions are especially popular in Asian countries that do not have established ISU member federations. The Gay Games have also included skating competitions for same-gender pairs and dance couples under ISI sponsorship. Other figure skating competitions for adults also attract participants from diverse cultures and sexual orientations.
While people have been ice skating for centuries, figure skating in its current form originated in the mid-19th century.
"A Treatise on Skating" (1772) by Englishman Robert Jones, is the first known account of figure skating. The form of skating originally had a cramped and formal style until American skater Jackson Haines (considered the "father of figure skating") introduced his free and expressive techniques in the mid-1860s. Although popular in Europe, Haine's "International style" did not come to the United States until long after his death.
The International Skating Union was founded in 1892. The first European Championship --for men only--- was held in 1891 and the first World Championship -- for men only -- was held in 1896 and won by Gilbert Fuchs. In 1902, a woman, Madge Syers, entered the competition for the first time, finishing second. The ISU quickly banned women from competing against men, but established a separate competition for "ladies" in 1906. Pairs skating was introduced at the 1908 World Championships, when the title was won by Anna Hübler & Heinrich Burger. The first Olympic figure skating competitions also took place in 1908.
On March 20, 1914 an international figure skating championship was held in New Haven, Connecticut which was the ancestor of both the United States and Canadian national championships. However, international competitions in figure skating were interrupted by World War I.
In the 1920s and 1930s, figure skating was dominated by Sonja Henie, who turned competitive success into a lucrative professional career as a movie star and touring skater. Henie also set the fashion for female skaters to wear short skirts and white boots. The top male skaters of this period included Gillis Grafström and Karl Schäfer.
Skating competitions were again interrupted for several years by World War II. After the war, with many European rinks in ruins, skaters from the United States and Canada began to dominate international competitions and to introduce technical innovations to the sport. Dick Button, 1948 and 1952 Olympic Champion, was the first skater to perform the double axel and triple loop jumps, as well as the flying camel spin.
The first World Championships in ice dancing were not held until 1952. In its first years, ice dance was dominated by British skaters. The first World title holders were Jean Westwood & Lawrence Demmy.
On February 15, 1961, the entire US figure skating team and their coaches were killed in the crash of Sabena Flight 548 in Brussels, Belgium en route to the World Championships in Prague. This tragedy sent the US skating program into a period of rebuilding.
At the same time, the Soviet Union rose to become a dominant power in the sport, especially in the disciplines of pairs skating and ice dancing. At every Winter Olympics from 1964 until the present day, a Soviet or Russian pairs duo has won gold, often considered the longest winning streak in modern sports history. (In 2002, Russians Yelena Berezhnaya and Anton Sikharulidze shared gold with Canadians Jamie Sale and David Pelletier, keeping the streak alive.)
Compulsory figures formerly accounted for up to 60% of the score in singles figure skating, which meant that skaters who could build up a big lead in figures could win competitions even if they were mediocre free skaters. As television coverage of skating events became more important, so did free skating. Beginning in 1968, the ISU began to progressively reduce the weight of figures, and in 1973, the short program was introduced. With these changes, the emphasis in competitive figure skating shifted to increasing athleticism in the free skating. By the time figures were finally eliminated entirely from competition in 1990, Midori Ito had landed the first triple axel by a woman, and Kurt Browning the first quadruple jump by a man.
Television also played a role in removing the restrictive amateur status rules that once governed the sport. In order to retain skaters who might otherwise have given up their eligibility to participate in lucrative professional events, in 1995 the ISU introduced prize money at its major competitions, funded by revenues from selling the TV rights to those events.
Figure skating is a very popular part of the Winter Olympic Games, in which the elegance of both the competitors and their movements attract many spectators. Not surprisingly, the best skaters show many of the same physical and psychological attributes as gymnasts. Many of the best skaters currently come from Russia and the United States which are traditional powers in the sport.
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