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Stratagy game

The game Battleship is a guessing game played by two people. Although made popular throughout the world as a commercial board game, first published by the Milton Bradley Company in 1931, it was originally played as a pencil and paper game.

The game is played on four square grids, two for each player. The grids are typically square, and the individual squares in the grid are identified by letter and number. On one grid the player arranges his own ships and records the shots by the opponent. On the other grid, the player records his own shots.

Before play begins, each player arranges a number of ships secretly on the grid for that player. Each ship occupies a number of consecutive squares on the grid, arranged either horizontally or vertically. The number of squares for each ship are determined by the type of the ship. The ships cannot overlap (i.e., at most one ship can occupy any given square in the grid). The types and numbers of ships allowed are the same for each player. These may vary depending on the rules.

When all the squares of a vessel is hit, its owner declares its name and that it has been sunk. The player who sinks all of his or her opponent's vessels first wins. The normal gameplay allows an additional shot to be fired after each successful hit. (This makes it possible, if rare, for a player to win before their opponent can take a single action.) Some variants allow each player to fire as many shots as he or she has vessels afloat in each turn, instead of the single shot or shoot-till-you miss style turn.

Some commercial versions have electronic gameboards. A player enters a row letter and column number and is rewarded with a particular sound, indicating either a hit or miss. In this way, the built-in circuitry acts as a referee, preventing a player from cheating by moving ships.

Commercials for an early Milton Bradley version popularized the catchphrase, "You sunk my battleship!"

Many variations in the basic rules are possible, including the sizes of the grids, the numbers and sizes of the ships, the numbers of shots allowed, and when hits are announced. Most of the variants simplify the game, which is useful for younger players.

one variation requires the opponent to announce a hit after each target square is given: this substantially reduces the challenge of guessing the locations of the ships. Another is to reduce the number of shots allowed by each individual hit, rather than by ships sunk: this reduces the benefit for locating ships precisely.

In the simplest variation of all in this respect, players alternate turns to attack just one target square of their choice, with the result announced immediately. This rule is popular for its simplicity but minimizes the strategic aspect of the game.

Sometimes ships are permitted to be oriented diagonally. Sometimes ships are not even required to be straight: some or all ships may be permitted to have angles in, may be required to have the shape of a particular polyomino (e.g. L-tromino or T-tetromino) or may be allowed to be completely freeform of a given number of squares (e.g. one freeform 8-square aircraft carrier per player).

Sometimes the ships are allowed to touch at corners. This permits more ships to be fitted within the same size of playing area, but also affects the guessing strategy for placing shots.

A logical variation of battleship in which guessing is not required is more common in puzzle magazines.
There will be some form of clues, either as row or column tallies or neighboring ship segment tallies in such a way that no guesses are needed to solve the puzzle.

Source: Wikipedia

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