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Traditional dances learned through participation.
Folk dance is a term used to describe a large number of dances that tend to share the following attributes:
* They were originally danced in about the 19th century or earlier (or are, in any case, not currently copyrighted);
* Their performance is dominated by an inherited tradition rather than by innovation;
* They were danced by common people and not exclusively by aristocracy;
* There is no one governing body that has final say over what "the dance" is or who is authorized to teach it. This also means that no one has the final say over the definition of folk dance or the minimum age for such dances.
Folk dances are traditionally performed during social events by people with little or no professional training. New dancers often learn informally by observing others and/or receiving help from others. Folk dancing is viewed as more of a social activity rather than competetive, although there are professional and semi-professional folk dance groups, and occassional folk dance competitions.
Types of folk dance
Types of folk dance include Contradance, English country dance (although today's ECD is a revival), International folk dance, Irish dance, Maypole dance, Morris dance, Scottish country dance (although the RSCDS is a governing body, and country dancing in general was originally a pastime of the nobility), Square dance, and Sword dance. Some choreographed dances such as Israeli Folk dance are called folk dances; though they are not actually folk dances in the strictest sense. Country dance overlaps with Contemporary Folk dance and Ballroom dance. Most country dances and Ballroom dances originated from folk dances, with gradual refinement over the years.
Folk dances are often part of the social fabric of the country, and often have common features. People familiar with folk dancing can often determine what country a dance is from even if they have not seen that particular dance before. Some countries' dances have features that are unique to that country, although neighoring countries sometimes have similar features. For example, the German and Austrian Schuhplattling dance consists of slapping the body and shoes in a fixed pattern; a feature that few other countries' dances have. Folk dances sometimes evolved long before current political boundaries, so that certain dances are shared by several countries. For example, some Serbian, Bulgarian, and Croatian dances share the same or similar dances, and sometimes even use the same name and music for those dances.
Although folk dancing was historically done by the common people of the local culture, international folk dance has received some popularity on college campuses and community centers within the United States and other countries.
The term "folk dance" is sometimes applied to dances of historical European culture, typically originated before 20th century. For other cultures the terms "ethnic dance" or "traditional dance" are sometimes used, although the latter terms may encompass ceremonial dances.
Modern street dances such as hip hop are not generally considered folk dances because such dances are living and evolving dance forms, while folk dances are to a significant degree bound by tradition.
Ballroom dance, depending on the particular dance, can be considered folk dance.
The terms "ethnic" and "traditional" are used when it is required to emphasize the cultural roots of the dance. It this sense, nearly all folk dances are ethnic ones. If some dances, such as Polka, cross ethnic boundaries (and even cross the boundary between "Folk" and "Ballroom" dance); ethnical differences are often considerable enough to speak of, e.g., "Czech Polka" vs. "German Polka".
However, not all ethnic dances are folk ones. The simplest example of these are ritual dances or dances of ritual origin.
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